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After the disruption, alienation, and insecurity of the Great Depression and the Second World War, the family became the center of American life. Couples wed early (in the late 1950s, the average age of American women at marriage was 20) and at rates that surpassed those of all previous eras and have not been equaled since. They raised large families. Many moved to sprawling, affordable tract housing developments in the suburbs, bought modern conveniences including cars and dishwashers, and enjoyed more leisure time.
Postwar prosperity made the banalities of housework less taxing but often came at a cost to women who gave up careers to maintain the domestic sphere. This lifestyle stressed the importance of a one-income household; the husband worked and the wife stayed home to raise the children. Historian Elaine Tyler May called it a kind of “domestic containment”: In seeking to nurture their families in the suburbs of the 1950s, housewives and mothers often gave up their aspirations for fulfillment outside the home.3 For instance, the decline in the number of women who pursued higher education can be attributed in large part to marital and familial priorities. In 1920, 47 percent of college students were women; by 1958 that figure stood at 38 percent despite the availability of more federal aid to pay for university education.4
Social expectations for what constituted a woman’s proper role outside the home constrained women Members of Congress as well. When asked if women were at a disadvantage in the rough-and-tumble of political campaigns because society held them to different standards than men, Maurine B. Neuberger, who served for years in the Oregon legislature before succeeding her late husband in the U.S. Senate, replied, “Definitely…. A woman enters into a man’s world of politics, into back-fighting and grubbing. Before she puts her name on the ballot, she encounters prejudice and people saying, ‘A woman’s place is in the home.’ She has to walk a very tight wire in conducting her campaign. She can’t be too pussyfooting or mousy. Also, she can’t go to the other extreme: belligerent, coarse, nasty.”5 Congresswoman Gracie Bowers Pfost of Idaho observed that a woman seeking political office “must be willing to have her every motive challenged, her every move criticized,” and added that she “must submit to having her private life scrutinized under a microscope … and [to being] the subject of devastating rumors every day.”6
Representative Coya Knutson of Minnesota, for instance, was the victim of insidious accusations made more potent by America’s often uncompromising expectations for women in the 1950s. The first woman to represent Minnesota, Knutson was an early advocate for the creation of a food stamp program, funding for school lunches, and federal student loans. But after two terms, Knutson’s abusive husband, Andy Knutson, sabotaged her promising career by conspiring with her opposition to publicly embarrass her. He falsely accused her of neglecting their family, which included a young son, and of having an affair with a Washington aide. The press sensationalized the story along with her husband’s plea, “Coya come home.” In the 1958 elections, Knutson’s opposition exploited this theme—her challenger, Odin Elsford Stanley Langen, used the campaign slogan “A Big Man for a Man-Sized Job”—and her constituents voted her out of office by a narrow 1,390-vote margin. Although a House committee investigating the campaign and election agreed with Knutson that her estranged husband’s accusations had contributed to her defeat, the damage had been done. Knutson’s 1960 bid to take back her seat failed by an even wider margin.7
Knutson’s experience reinforced the widely held perception that women politicians could not manage both a career and family. In fact, well into the 1990s segments of American society doubted whether women candidates could balance domestic responsibilities and a professional life. Although male political opponents were less inclined to exploit it in latter decades, women politicians were repeatedly put on the defensive by the media and constituents who raised the issue.
Shifting social norms quickly altered staid notions of domesticity. Frustrated by their lack of professional fulfillment, many postwar wives and mothers looked for something else outside the routine of household duties. Betty Friedan memorably identified this malaise as “the problem that has no name” in her landmark 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. The book’s popularity attested to Friedan’s connection with a feeling of discontent. Women who came of age in the 1960s were determined to make their lives less constrained than those of their mothers. Consequently, the women’s rights movement and the sexual revolution of the 1960s challenged many of the traditional notions of motherhood and marriage.8 Many young women rejected the sexual conventions of their parents’ generation. Open discussion of sexuality and cohabitation outside marriage grew increasingly accepted in American society. As birth control became more widely available, women exercised greater control over when or if they would have children. In the landmark 1973 Roe v. Wade decision, the Supreme Court upheld on the grounds of privacy a woman’s constitutional right to end her pregnancy.
Sexual and reproductive freedom provided more options for women, who previously chose either a career or marriage. By the 1970s, many marriages involved two careers, as both the husband and the wife worked and increasingly shared family duties, accelerating a trend already well underway in the post-World War II period. The divorce rate also rose, and single, working mothers became more commonplace.9 Throughout this period, more young women pursued careers in male-dominated fields, such as law, medicine, and business, loosening their traditional bonds to home and hearth and preparing the way for a new and larger generation of women in state and national politics.
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Tiếng anh 10- Bài tập trắc nghiệm về các thì tiếng anh
- Tác giả: doc.edu.vn
- Ngày đăng: 08/17/2022
- Đánh giá: 4.89 (735 vote)
- Tóm tắt: Her family to America before 1975. a. went b. have gone c. had gone d. would go. 88. When I arrived at the party, Martha . home already.
Where Will American Art Take You?
- Tác giả: americanart.si.edu
- Ngày đăng: 05/07/2022
- Đánh giá: 4.7 (441 vote)
- Tóm tắt: The Smithsonian American Art Museum is home to one of the largest and most inclusive collections of American art in the world.
Books That Shaped America 1900 to 1950
- Tác giả: loc.gov
- Ngày đăng: 11/19/2021
- Đánh giá: 4.5 (240 vote)
- Tóm tắt: Harriet Tubman (1820–1913) is celebrated for her courage and skill in guiding many … Magazine before the appearance of the first book edition of 1904.
The American family today | Pew Research Center
- Tác giả: pewresearch.org
- Ngày đăng: 03/14/2022
- Đánh giá: 4.1 (291 vote)
- Tóm tắt: An additional 15% of children are living with two parents, at least one of whom has been married before. This share has remained relatively …
- Khớp với kết quả tìm kiếm: In addition to the changes in family structure that have occurred over the past several decades, family life has been greatly affected by the movement of more and more mothers into the workforce. This increase in labor force participation is a …
Life of Jacqueline B. Kennedy
- Tác giả: jfklibrary.org
- Ngày đăng: 06/06/2022
- Đánh giá: 3.87 (499 vote)
- Tóm tắt: Her father, John, was a wealthy stockbroker on Wall Street whose family had come … Before she started school, she had read all the children’s books on her …
- Khớp với kết quả tìm kiếm: I loved it more than any year of my life. Being away from home gave me a chance to look at myself with a jaundiced eye. I learned not to be ashamed of a real hunger for knowledge, something I had always tried to hide, and I came home glad to start …
12. Is it raining? – No, it isn’t but the ground is wet. It a. rained 13. Her
- Tác giả: hoidap247.com
- Ngày đăng: 11/28/2021
- Đánh giá: 3.66 (535 vote)
- Tóm tắt: Her family. b. were learning c. have learned d. had learned b. had r. … have learned d. had learned b. had rained to America before 1975.
Anzia Yezierska – Jewish Women’s Archive
- Tác giả: jwa.org
- Ngày đăng: 02/03/2022
- Đánh giá: 3.46 (223 vote)
- Tóm tắt: Her work fell into obscurity until the 1975 reissue of Bread Givers. Contents. 1. Family and Personal Life. 2. Fictional Writings and Themes.
- Khớp với kết quả tìm kiếm: Born in the Russian-Polish village Plinsk, near Warsaw, between 1880 and 1885, the youngest of nine children, Yezierska arrived in the United States with her family in the early 1890s. The year of her birth is uncertain not only because Yezierska …
Choose the best answer: Her family to America before 1975
- Tác giả: tracnghiem.net
- Ngày đăng: 11/27/2021
- Đánh giá: 3.32 (591 vote)
- Tóm tắt: Her family________ to America before 1975. A. went. B. have gone. C. had gone.
Her family________ to America before 1975.a. went b … – Hoc24
- Tác giả: hoc24.vn
- Ngày đăng: 05/27/2022
- Đánh giá: 3.17 (324 vote)
- Tóm tắt: When I arrived at the party, Martha________ home already. a. went b. have gone c. had gone d …
Josephine Baker | Biography, Children, Movies, Banana Skirt, & Facts
- Tác giả: britannica.com
- Ngày đăng: 05/11/2022
- Đánh giá: 2.94 (144 vote)
- Tóm tắt: She continued to perform occasionally until her death in 1975, … Notable Family Members: daughter of Scott Swift daughter of Andrea Swift …
Choose the best answer: Her family to America before 1975
- Tác giả: hoc247.net
- Ngày đăng: 03/15/2022
- Đánh giá: 2.83 (123 vote)
- Tóm tắt: Her family________ to America before 1975. a. went. b. have gone. c. had gone. d. would go. YOMEDIA. bởi Hong Van 07/06/2021. ADMICRO/lession_isads=0 …
A Saigon Refugee Draws Parallels Between The Fall Of Her Home City And Kabul
- Tác giả: wbur.org
- Ngày đăng: 04/06/2022
- Đánh giá: 2.61 (110 vote)
- Tóm tắt: But Vietnamese-American journalist Ngoc Nguyen says comparisons on how … In 1975, when Ngoc was baby, she and her family escaped Saigon as …
Her family to America before 1975
- Tác giả: qa.haylamdo.com
- Ngày đăng: 04/29/2022
- Đánh giá: 2.69 (129 vote)
- Tóm tắt: Her family________ to America before 1975. … While her husband was in the army, Janet________ to him twice a week. Xem đáp án » 20/10/2022 105 …
Tribute: The Legacy of Ruth Bader Ginsburg and WRP Staff – ACLU
- Tác giả: aclu.org
- Ngày đăng: 07/11/2022
- Đánh giá: 2.39 (60 vote)
- Tóm tắt: (Her daughter was born 14 months before Ginsberg entered law school.) … referred to her by the New Jersey affiliate of the American Civil Liberties Union.
- Khớp với kết quả tìm kiếm: In Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld (off-site), 420 U.S. 636 (1975), Ginsburg continued to develop this analysis when she successfully argued against a provision in the Social Security Act that denied to widowed fathers benefits afforded to widowed mothers. …
National Endowment for the Arts
- Tác giả: arts.gov
- Ngày đăng: 04/18/2022
- Đánh giá: 2.3 (124 vote)
- Tóm tắt: An American Book Award winner, a National Book Critics Circle finalist in … Bui’s memoir traces her family’s daring escape after the fall of South Việt …
- Khớp với kết quả tìm kiếm: Dissatisfied with the limits of oral history, Bui turned towards other genres—hunting for a way to weave the personal, political, and historical. “I was inspired by some of the big graphic memoirs like Maus by Art Spiegelman and Persepolis by …