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Top 10+ urban is prevalent in most cities. everywhere you go there chi tiết nhất

Top 10+ urban is prevalent in most cities. everywhere you go there chi tiết nhất

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Status of Air Pollution in Delhi

Delhi (or the National Capital Territory of Delhi), is jointly administered by the central and state governments. It accommodates nearly 167.5 lakh people (2011 Census of India).(1)

Metros across the world bear the major brunt of environmental pollution; likewise, Delhi is at the receiving end in India.

A study funded by the World Bank Development Research Group was carried out in 1991-1994 to study the effects of air pollution.(2) During the study period, the average total suspended particulate (TSP) level in Delhi was approximately five-times the World Health Organization’s annual average standard. Furthermore, the total suspended particulate levels in Delhi during this time period exceeded the World Health Organization’s 24-h standard on 97% of all days on which readings were taken. The study concluded that the impact of particulate matter on total non-trauma deaths in Delhi was smaller than the effects found in the United States of America, but found that a death associated with air pollution in Delhi caused more life-years to be lost because these deaths were occurring at a younger age.

A report by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, India, in 1997 reviewed the environmental situation in Delhi over concerns of deteriorating conditions.(3) Air pollution was one of the areas of concern identified in this study. It was estimated that about 3000 metric tons of air pollutants were emitted every day in Delhi, with a major contribution from vehicular pollution (67%), followed by coal-based thermal power plants (12%). There was a rising trend from 1989 to 1997 as monitored by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). The concentrations of carbon monoxide from vehicular emissions in 1996 showed an increase of 92% over the values observed in 1989, consequent upon the increase in vehicular population. The particulate lead concentrations appeared to be in control; this was attributable to the de-leading of petrol and restrictions on lead-handling industrial units. Delhi has the highest cluster of small-scale industries in India that contribute to 12% of air pollutants along with other industrial units.

Vehicular pollution is an important contributor to air pollution in Delhi. According to the Department of Transport, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, vehicular population is estimated at more than 3.4 million, reaching here at a growth rate of 7% per annum. Although this segment contributes to two-thirds of the air pollution, there has been a palpable decline compared to the 1995-1996 levels.

The PM10 standard is generally used to measure air quality. The PM10 standard includes particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less (0.0004 inches or one-seventh the width of a human hair). These small particles are likely to be responsible for adverse health effects because of their ability to reach the lower regions of the respiratory tract. According to the Air Quality Guideline by the World Health Organization, the annual mean concentration recommended for PM10 was 20 μg/m3, beyond which the risk for cardiopulmonary health effects are seen to increase.(4) Major concerns for human health from exposure to PM10 include effects on breathing and respiratory systems, damage to lung tissue, cancer and premature death. Elderly persons, children and people with chronic lung disease, influenza or asthma are especially sensitive to the effects of particulate matter. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3, trailing in the third position after Ludhiana and Kanpur.(5) Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi [Table 1].(6-9)

Top 11 urban is prevalent in most cities. everywhere you go there tổng hợp bởi Lambaitap.edu.vn

Urban is prevalent in most cities everywhere you go – Course Hero

  • Tác giả: coursehero.com
  • Ngày đăng: 03/06/2022
  • Đánh giá: 4.59 (278 vote)
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Bài tập nâng cao tiếng Anh lớp 11 Unit 9 Cities of the future có đáp án

Bài tập nâng cao tiếng Anh lớp 11 Unit 9 Cities of the future có đáp án
  • Tác giả: vndoc.com
  • Ngày đăng: 01/12/2022
  • Đánh giá: 4.41 (385 vote)
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Bài tập trắc nghiệm Unit 9 lớp 11 Cities of the future có đáp án

Bài tập trắc nghiệm Unit 9 lớp 11 Cities of the future có đáp án
  • Tác giả: thuvienhoidap.net
  • Ngày đăng: 01/11/2022
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  • Tác giả: tailieu.com
  • Ngày đăng: 01/25/2022
  • Đánh giá: 4.04 (555 vote)
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Tiếng Anh lớp 11 bài 9 (đề số 1)- bài Review kèm lời giải chi tiết và dịch sẵn

  • Tác giả: tailieu24h.vn
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Living with urban foxes – Pest control – Hastings Borough Council

  • Tác giả: hastings.gov.uk
  • Ngày đăng: 07/06/2022
  • Đánh giá: 3.75 (394 vote)
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Vocabulary and Grammar Revision for Unit 9 Tiếng Anh 11

  • Tác giả: 123docz.net
  • Ngày đăng: 03/30/2022
  • Đánh giá: 3.4 (480 vote)
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Vocabulary and Grammar Revision for Unit 9 Tiếng Anh 11

  • Tác giả: hoc247.net
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Light Pollution: The Overuse & Misuse of Artificial Light at Night

  • Tác giả: jmu.edu
  • Ngày đăng: 05/21/2022
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Smart cities: shaping the society of 2030 – UNESCO Digital Library

  • Tác giả: unesdoc.unesco.org
  • Ngày đăng: 04/16/2022
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Trắc nghiệm Tiếng Anh 11 mới Unit 9 (có đáp án): Cities of the future

  • Tác giả: vietjack.com
  • Ngày đăng: 12/16/2021
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